War of independence
By the mid of eighteenth century, Mughal antidynastic had become capricious. Inspite of the countless efforts of Muslims, Mughals could not improve their position. Muslim Amirs established their independent states. After the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir, Marhattas boost power and established their rule in many states. In 1761, keeping in apperance of these situations, Ahmad Shah Abdali eject an attack and smashed the strength of Marhattas in the third battle of Panipat. After that he returned to his country and the western nations got the chance to rule over the Sub-continent. In 1608, with the permission of Jahangir, British started their adjustment after establishing their Trade centre in Surat. In 1757, after the conquest of battle of Plassey, British got rigid hold over Bengal. Hoarders sold the things at such high price that public started dying of drought. Money lenders increased their rate of interest. People sold their properties, resources and even their houses but drought did not finish. East India Company kept observing the situations. After this, they captured Mysore and snatched Punjab from the successors of Ranjeet Singh.
Reasons of War of Independence
Essential reasons of the war of independence are mentioned below:
1) Political Reasons
The British government, with highly aggressive policy, deposed the rulers of these states. Charles Napier captured Sindh without any justification. After this he snippet Berar area from the loyal state of Hyderabad. Many areas of Manipur were grabbed by the British. The forcible occupation of those states was enough to flare up the people. British confiscated almost twenty thousand lordships. Lordships were the source of income besides being the mark of respect. It was an important reason behind war, because majority of those landlords who had lost their lordships played leading role in 1857 war of independence.
ii ) Social Reasons
Muslims ruled the Sub-continent for a long term, but never followed the policy of discriminatory etc. The British looked down upon the subjugated nations which created hatred in the local people. The British disliked the language, culture and the religions of the Indians. They tried to change the social values of the Sub-continent. They disliked the ancient Hindu, Muslim cultures and traditions as if they were the lagacy of barbarism and terrorism in the Sub-continent. The people of the Sub-continent strongly condemned this attitude of the British.
iii) Economic Reasons
In the wake of industrial revolution in the Europe, European products were sold at cheap prices in the markets of the Sub-continent. It badly harmed the local industry. Trade was already under the control of the British, and they had total monopoly over trade. British plunderage Indian wealth and took it to Britain. British imposed annual agriculture tax (Malya), which made the life of the people miserable. Since this tax was also charged on unfertile lands, poor farmers were almost subdued. They were deprived of their rights. Hindu landlord farmers were declared the owner of the land. The people, related to agriculture occupation, were in awful condition. Apart from that, British decreased the quota of Indians in employments and even if some one got a job, it would be of low grade with low pay. These factors were also the causes of the war of independence of 1857.
iv) Religious Reasons
The British allowed the Indian Christian clergyman to work in India. They started the distribution of Christian literature. An amendment was made in their law of 1850, regarding the conversion of religion. In Hindu and Muslim law, an heir can only be the one who follows the religion of his father. As Arabic Jurisprudence and Hadith became unimportant, Muslim education was totally changed. All seminaries (Madrassas) and endowment properties were taken over by the British government. People thought that since Christians were teaching in the schools, their children would become totally illiterate of religious teachings. As a result, people stopped sending their children to schools. In jails, the meal served was cooked by one cook. Since Hindus believed in cast system, it was difficult for them to eat this food. Marriage law was also not acceptable for Hindus. Christians were trying to spread their religion by any ways.
v) Military Reasons
The British Government appointed Europeans on all important positions. There was no way for Indians to progress. Pays were also very low. Just imagine that in Bengal, British soldier was paid Rs. 40 per month whereas an Indian soldier got Rs 6 per month. On protest, twenty four soldiers of the Sub-continent were fired at by cannon. Within army, off and on, sentiments flared up against the British Government.
Another unfair act that became trigger cause which added fuel to fire, was the arrangement of buckshot to the soldiers which were cover up with lard (fat of pig) and cow fat that had to be husk off with teeth before loading it in gun, whereas pig was forbidden for Muslims and cow was sacred for Hindus. It caused to burn up the emotions of both the communities.