Indus Plain and Deserts Indus River is the largest river of Pakistan starting from Lake Mansarower to Arabian Sea. This is about 1800 miles Long River with so many tributaries and distributaries. In the upper region a number for streams join it, but at the later stage, some of its western and Eastern tributaries make it more huge and vast in volume and speed. Its western tributaries are swat, Kunar, planjkora, Kurram, Kabul, Gomal, Tochi rivers are most famous tributaries, in the eastern tributaries the Jhelum. The Chenab the Ravi and the Sutlej are very famous river of Pakistan, combine at the panjnab in Punjab. It is estimated that severe floods come on an average every 6-7 year. The Indus plains slope down from north to south therefore, an average down slope fall of Indus plain is less that one foot per mile, kirana hills, near sargoda are most famous exuded hills on Indus plain however, uneven to pography Indus plain can be divided into following three physiographic divisions.
1. The upper Indus plain.
2. The lower Indus plain.
3. The deltaic plain.
The upper Indus plain:
The upper Indus plain starts from Attock to Mithan Kot, where the eastern tributaries combine with Indus River, the region in covered and area of the Punjab province mostly. The plain is 180 to 300 meters above sea level. The north eastern part is comparatively higher. Although most of the plain area has existent by the alluvial soil brought by the rivers, but near sargoda and chiniot, some old Dry hills appear in the regions, and this hills are Kima hills. The five big rivers of Punjab drain this plain An Area between two river called Doab so this region can be divided into following Doabs.
1. Bari Doab: this doab lying between Beas and Ravi rivers.
2. Rachna Doab: this area in lying between the Ravi and Chenab rivers.
3. Chaj Doab: this Doab lying between an area of the Chenab and the Jhelum Rivers.
4. Sindh Sagar Doab: this Doab is between the Jhelum and Indus rivers.
2. The lower Indus plain:
The lower Indus plain starts from Mithankot to Thatta, from the Indus river flows alone and carries not only its own water, but also carries water of eastern and western tributaries, this plain is formed by over flow western tributaries, this plain is formed by over flow floods of indus river during the flood season, in Sindh the abandoned channels are called Dhoros, and small salt lakes Dhands, are remarkable features of this plain. This plain is main agricultural zone of Pakistan. The lower Indus plain situated between the both banks of Indus River, it more productive, but rainfall is medium and agricultural activities depend upon the canal water system. But during the monsoon season, rainfall, falls, over the pain but left bank of Indus river is not completely under cultivation, and canal water system is also poor.
3. Deltaic/Delatic plain:
The Indus Delta begins near Thatta (Sindh) and river Indus distributing it self into a number of branches joins the water of Arabian Sea. The delta is still growing its growing rate is five miles in 58 years, near Khar Greeks. The Indus delta contain various lakes,, that are formed by erosional activities during the flood season but, due to shortage of water, since few years, this delta is looking for a water drop for its growing forests.
Deserts of Pakistan:
Our deserts area are parts of plain but due to some different characters, where annual precipitation is very low to support the vegetation. There are following three main deserts in Pakistan.
1. Thal desert:
This desert lying between the indus and Jhelum Rivers. This area is known as Sindh. Sagar Doab. Mainwali, Sargodha, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts are the districts of Thal desert in Punjab province. In this area rainfall is very low and large number of sand dunes are found here.,
2. Cholistan desert:
Near the border of Bahawalpur in the south, this area called cholistan, it is the convectional part of Rajputana desert situated in India. Due to low rainfalls scattered sand dunes can be seen easily here soil is very fertile but due to shortage of canal water and rain water cultivation is not possible.
3. The Nara and Thar deserts:
The south border of Khairpur district in Sindh is known as Nara and border of Mirpur khas and Sanghar districts is called Thar Desert. Actually both deserts are jointed with each other physiographical. This area is the driest region of our country low rainfall, huge and dunes, and thorny bushes can be seen easily here.