Initial problems of Pakistan:
Pakistan had to face various problems after it came in to existence. There were no offices and infrastructure available to run the affairs of the newly born country. India also tried to create difficulties for Pakistan, following are the some major problems that Pakistan faced after its birth.
Refugees problem was one of the important problems that Pakistan had to face from the first day of its creation. According to an estimate about 12.5 Million Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan. Widespread riots and massacre of Muslims in East Punjab had started soon the partition was announced. Pakistan had to bear the burden of Refugees soon after its creation. Quaid- i-Azam made great efforts to rehabilitate the Refugees. Refugee’s relief fund was established and the problem was soon overcome through the perfect efforts of Quaid-i-Azam.
Division of Financial Assets:
The Indian leaders tried their best to weaken Pakistan’s Economy, so that the newly born state should not survive. At the time of partition there was a cash balance of 4 Billion, this amount was to be divided proportionality between Pakistan and India. According to formula adopted Pakistan had to receive 750 Million of rupees. But the Indian authorities refused to transfer the amount to Pakistan. After some time the first installment of 200 Million was paid, while rest of the amount was stopped by Indian government. Mr. Gandhi went on Hunger strike and demanded that the amount must be paid to Pakistan on humanitarian grounds. Indian government paid further 500 Million rupees to Pakistan, while remaining 50 Million rupees were never paid.
Division of Military Assets and Railways:
Military Assets and Railway was also to be divided between India and Pakistan. To divide military assets a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Field Marshal Auchinleck. Out dated weapons and army vehicles were given to Pakistan and only small part of weapons share was given to Pakistan. The air crafts given to Pakistan as its share were not in working conditions. Same tactics were used when Railways was divided, expired engines and railway coaches were given to Pakistan.
Administrative Problems and Choice of Capital: Pakistan had not sufficient recourses to tackle with its problems, like lake of finance, India deprived Pakistan of its financial share for many years, lake of furniture, offices and no infrastructure. There were no offices available to carry out the affairs of state. Choice of Capital was another problem. Karachi was chosen as Capital. The Quaid-i-Azam took over as Governor General and Liaqat Ali khan was appointed as Prime Minister of Pakistan. Efforts were made to bring all files, chairs, documents, from Delhi to Pakistan which Pakistan got as its share. It was really a tough task.
Canal Water Dispute:
The injustices made by Mr. Redcliff, Chairman of boundary commission resulted into water dispute. The sources of Pakistani rivers were in India, Punjab was divided in such a way that the neadworks of these rivers were given to India. Redcliff as a part of conspiracy included some areas of Punjab into India where the headworks were located. The result was as expected; India stopped the water of Pakistan in 1948. This act of India caused great threat of famine and lose of Crops. According to Redcliff’s Award Madhupur Headwork on river Ravi and Ferozpur Headwork on river Sutlej were given to India. These two rivers and its tributary canals irrigate a large area of Pakistan. Pakistan called United Nations to solve this problem. On September 19, 1960 an agreement was finally signed between the two countries, which is known as Indus Basin treaty. According to this agreement the Chanab, Jehlum and Indus rivers were allotted to Pakistan, and three eastern rivers Ravi, Bias and Sutlej were given to India.
Annexation of States:
According to the partition plan Princely States of India were given option to join either India of Pakistan. But the ruler had to keep in view the majority population and geographical conditions of the State. Hence few of the states decided to join Pakistan like Bahawalpur, Lasbela, Makran, Qalat, Junagarh, Manavdor and Mangrol. India occupied Junagarh, Manavdor and Mangrol by force.
Junagarh, Manavdor and Mangrol:
Junagarh was a small state 300 miles away from Karachi. The Nawab of Junagarh decided to accede to Pakistan. Soon after Nawab’s announcement of accession of Junagarh to Pakistan, Indian army entered Junagarh and forcibly occupied the State. Other small states Manavdor and Mngrol also followed the Nawab of Junagarh and decided to join Pakistan, but Indian army also occupied these states.
Hyderabad was the largest state of India. The ruler of Hyderabad was a Muslim called as Nizam. Hyderabad was so wealthy and economically prosperous that it had all the requirements of becoming an independent State. But it was a landlocked state surrounded by Indian Territory. Initially the ruler of Hyderabad Nizam wanted to make Hyderabad an independent state, later on he showed his interests to join Pakistan. Indian forces finally occupied the state on Sep. 12 1948.
Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavorable circumstances .It had no resources,it had no resources, it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quiad-e-Azam and his colligues to grapple with the situation His golden principles “Unity” “Faith” and “Discipline” gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country .In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948, he told the nation: