According to a famous historian Prof. Max Muller Sindhi was born even before Sanskrit. He says that the people of Indus valley civilization as 2000 BC spoke Sindhi. Sindhi is one of the ancient languages of Pakistan. There is prominent influence of other old languages like Drawri, Sanskrit, Greek, Turkish, Arabic, on Sindhi. The literature of Sindhi language is very vast. Sindhi was the only language in which the Holy Quran was translated for the first time in this region.
It seems that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the people of Moen- jo-Daro contained elements of present era Sindhi language. The background of this language is not exactly known. But, travelers like Al-Beruni has told us about the original script of the language. Chach Nama is an authentic document that proves that the dialect of Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century, as it is today. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the subcontinent, Sindhi changed its forms and adopted maximum words of Arabic as well as Persian and Turkish. Literary and standard form of Sindhi is Sahti. Dialects spoken in the lower Sindh and Rajhistan are known as lari, kachi, katthiwari and thari.
Similarly jogali, gandavi, fikri, lasi, kaichi,, lori and cheni are the dialects spoken the different parts of Baluchistan.
Sindhi is the first language of this region in which Holy Quran was translated by Akhwand Azizullah for the first time. Chach Nama is one of the important literary work in Sindhi. After the advent of Islam in subcontinent Sindhi language and literature made great progress. During this period most of the writings in Sindhi were based upon patriotism. Sufi Saints propagated Islam through Sindhi poetry. Ginan was the most prominent form of Sindhi poetry.
Role of Sindhi Sufi Poets:
Shah Abdul Latif Bhattai is known as the greatest spiritual poets of Sind. His poetry is known for simplicity, flow and rhythm. His book Shah jo Risalo is considered as master piece in Sindhi literature. Sachal Sarmast is another mystic poet in his poetry he used many other languages besides Sindhi like Hindu, Urdu,Siraiki, Punjabi and Persian. Wahdat ul Wajood is one of the famous theme of him. Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim was a great religious scholar who lived in (1690-1761). He wrote about books in Sindhi and Persian.
Modern Sindhi Literature:
Mirza Qilich Beg is known as the father of modern Sindhi literature. He has written or translated about 400 books. Among the modern Sindhi writers Sheikh Ayaz. Prof. Karim Buksh, and Asadullah Bhutto are the most remarkable. A number of institutions are rendering their services for the development of Sindhi language.
Steps taken for the Development of Sindhi:
Various steps have been taken to develop Sindhi. Organizations like ‘Sindhi Literary Board’ and Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula were set up. Few newspapers are being published in Sindhi. These include Kawish, Ibrat, Naw-e-Sindhi and Khadim-e-Watan besides a number of weeklies. Most of the forms of literature like short stories, novels, and mystic essays were written. Sindh University Jamshoro has a Sindhi department where higher education of Sindhi language and literature is imparted. In the Sindh Province Sindhi is used as medium of instruction in Schools and Colleges. The students are allowed to take their examinations in Sindhi. Sindhi is the Court language in Sindh.